Metaprogramming. #

Operator overloading. #

All operators are implemented as object methods.

Incomplete: Not all operators have transitioned to the method paradigm.

Normally this would impact performance, but Cyber generates specialized bytecode for builtin types like int and float. The VM performs inline caching at runtime to eliminate the overhead of evaluating on dynamic operands.

To overload an operator for an object type, declare $prefix, $infix, $postfix methods. See the available builtin operators. Since operator names aren’t allowed as standard identifiers, they are contained in a string literal.

type Vec2 object:
  x float
  y float

  func '$infix+'(self, o):
    return Vec2{
      x: x + o.x,
      y: y + o.y,

  func '$prefix-'(self):
    return Vec2{ x: -x, y: -y }

var a = Vec2{ x: 1, y: 2 }
var b = a + Vec2{ x: 3, y: 4 }
var c = -a

Some special operators have their own name. This example overloads the index operator and the set index operator:

type MyCollection object:
  arr List

  func '$index'(self, idx):
    return arr[idx * 2]

  func '$setIndex'(self, idx, val):
    arr[idx * 2] = val 

var a = MyCollection{ arr: [1, 2, 3, 4] }
print a[1]        -- Prints `3`

Builtin operators. #

A list of all supported operators:

Bitwise not$prefix~
Greater equal$infix>=
Less equal$infix<=
Bitwise and$infix&
Bitwise or$infix|
Bitwise xor$infix||
Bitwise left shift$infix<<
Bitwise right shift$infix>>
Set index$setIndex

Custom operators. #

Planned Feature

Magic functions. #

Call module. #

Declare a $call function to allow invoking a module as a function.

Incomplete: Although $call function is supported in the VM and builtin modules use it, it is not currently enabled for user modules.

-- Object types are also modules.
type Vec2 object:
  x float
  y float

  func '$call'(x float, y float) Vec2:
    return Vec2{ x: x, y: y }

var v = Vec2(1, 2)

Getter/Setter. #

Planned Feature

Missing method. #

Declare a $missing method as a fallback when a method was not found in an instance.

Planned Feature

type A object:
  func '$missing'(self, args...):
    return args.len

var a = A{};
print      -- Output: '0'
print, 2)  -- Output: '2'

Reflection. #

A metatype object references an internal type. Use the typeof builtin to get the metatype of a value.

var val = 123
print typeof(val)   -- 'type: float'

-- Referencing a type as a value also returns its `metatype`.
print boolean       -- 'type: boolean'

type metatype #

func id(self) int
-- Returns the type ID as an `int`.

Annotations. #

Annotations are used to attach modifiers to declarative statements. The @host annotation is used for embedding to bind a host function to a Cyber function:

@host func compute() float

Custom annotations.

Planned Feature

Runtime eval. #

Planned Feature

Generics. #

Planned Feature

Compile-time. #

Planned Feature